The people and events that shaped this week in history.
1812 – The War of 1812 began as the U.S. declared war against Great Britain. The conflict began over trade restrictions.
1873 – Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote for a U.S. President.
1928 – Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean as she completed a flight from Newfoundland to Wales.
1942 – The U.S. Navy commissioned its first black officer, Harvard University medical student Bernard Whitfield Robinson.
1983 – Dr. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space aboard the space shuttle Challenger.
1862 – U.S. President Abraham Lincoln outlined his Emancipation Proclamation, which outlawed slavery in U.S. territories.
1910 – The first Father’s Day was celebrated in Spokane, Washington.
1934 – The U.S. Congress established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The commission was to regulate radio and TV broadcasting (later).
1964 – The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the U.S. Senate.
1978 – Garfield was in newspapers around the U.S. for the first time.
1782 – The U.S. Congress approved the Great Seal of the United States.
1793 – Eli Whitney applied for a cotton gin patent. He received the patent on March 14. The cotton gin initiated the American mass-production concept.
1943 – Race-related rioting erupted in Detroit. Federal troops were sent in two days later to end the violence that left more than 30 dead.
1977 – The Trans-Alaska Pipeline began operation.
1983 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers must treat male and female workers equally in providing health benefits for their spouses.
1893 – The Ferris Wheel was introduced at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, IL.
1938 – In Washington, U.S. President Roosevelt signed the $3.75 billion Emergency Relief Appropriation Act.
1945 – Pan Am announced an 88-hour round-the-world flight at a cost of $700.
1985 – Scientists announced that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were those of Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele.
1989 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that burning the American flag as a form of political protest was protected by the First Amendment.
1807 – British seamen board the USS Chesapeake, a provocation leading to the War of 1812.
1870 – The U.S. Congress created the Department of Justice.
1933 – Germany became a one political party country when Hitler banned parties other than the Nazis.
1944 – U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt signed the “GI Bill of Rights” to provide broad benefits for veterans of the war.
1970 – U.S. President Richard Nixon signed an extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. It required that the voting age in the United States would be 18.
2009 – Eastman Kodak Company announced that it would discontinue sales of the Kodachrome Color Film.
1931 – Wiley Post and Harold Gatty took off from New York on the first round-the-world flight in a single-engine plane.
1934 – William Bayly convicted of murder in New Zealand despite the body of his victim not being found. He is accused of killing his neighbors, Sam and Christobel Lakey. Bayly reportedly burned Sam’s body in his shed, where investigators found hair, bones, and ash. Tests of the remains tested positive for human remains.
1972 – U.S. President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discussed a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI’s Watergate investigation.
1972 – President Nixon signs the Higher Education Act into law, which barred discrimination in higher education programs, including funding for sports and other extracurricular activities.
1992 – Mafia boss John Gotti, who was nicknamed the “Teflon Don” after escaping unscathed from several trials during the 1980s, is sentenced to life in prison. He was found guilty on 14 counts of conspiracy to commit murder and racketeering. After being sentenced, hundreds of Gotti’s supporters stormed the building and overturned and smashed cars.
1896 – Booker T. Washington became the first African American to receive an honorary MA degree from Howard University.
1940 – TV cameras were used for the first time in a political convention as the Republicans convened in Philadelphia, PA.
1964 – The Federal Trade Commission announced that starting in 1965, cigarette manufactures would be required to include warnings on their packaging about the harmful effects of smoking.
1986 – The Empire State Building was designated a National Historic Landmark.
2002 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that juries, not judges, must make the decision to give a convicted killer the death penalty.